Настоящее длительное время английского языка

Настоящее длительное время в английском языке (Present Continuous Tense)

Образование Present Continuous Tense

Present Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в настоящем времени (am, is, are) и формы причастия настоящего времени (Present Participle) смыслового глагола: I am working, he is working, we are working.

В вопросительной форме вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим: Am I working? Is he working? Are you working?

Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола: I am not working, he is not working, we are not working.

В вопросительно-отрицательной форме частица not ставится непосредственно после подлежащего: Am I not working? Is he not working? Are we not working?

В разговорной речи обычно употребляются следующие сокращения:

В утвердительной формеВ отрицательной формеВ вопросительно-отрицательной форме
I'm [aım]I'm not
He's [hi(:)z]He isn't ['ız(ə)nt], He's notIsn't he
She's [ʃi(:)z]She isn't, She's not
It's [ıts]It isn't, It's not
We're ['wi(:)ə]We aren't [a:nt], We're notAren't we
You're [jɔ:,jʋə]You aren't, You're notAren't you
They're ['ðe(ı)ə]They aren't, They're notAren't they

Употребление Present Continuous Tense

Для выражения длительного действия, совершающегося в момент речи. Наличие слов, обозначающих момент речи, как now сейчас, теперь, at this moment в настоящий момент, не обязательно, поскольку сама форма времени указывает, что действие совершается в момент речи.

Для выражения длительного действия, совершающегося в настоящий период времени, хотя и не обязательно в момент речи: Present Continuous следует противопоставить Present Indefinite. В то время как Present Continuous выражает длительное действие, совершающееся в момент речи или в настоящий период времени, Present Indefinite выражает действие, совершающееся обычно, вообще.

Для выражения длительного действия в будущем (вместо Future Continuous) в обстоятельственных придаточных предложениях условия и времени, которые вводятся союзами if, when, while и т.д.

Для обозначения действия в будущем, когда выражается намерение совершить действие или когда речь идет о заранее намеченном действии. В этом случае в английском предложении, обычно имеется обстоятельство времени, указывающее на будущее время.


Не is reading a book.Он читает книгу (сейчас).
She is writing a letter.Она пишет письмо (сейчас).
Don't make a noise, he is working.He шумите, он работает (сейчас).
We are going to the theater tonight.Мы идем в театр сегодня вечером.
She is leaving by the five o'clock train.Она уезжает пятичасовым поездом.
Не is taking his examination on Friday.Он держит экзамен в пятницу.
Не is writing a new play.Он пишет новую пьесу.
That firm is carrying on negotiations for the purchase of ore.Эта фирма ведет переговоры о покупке руды.
If I am sleeping when he comes, wake me up, please.Если я буду спать, когда он придет, разбудите меня, пожалуйста.
I shall be reading the newspaper while you are writing your grammar exercises.Я буду читать газету, пока вы будете писать грамматические упражнения.

Примеры употребления времен Present Continuous и Present Simple:

Present ContinuousPresent Simple
I am reading a newspaper.Я читаю газету (сейчас).I read newspapers in the evening.Я читаю газеты по вечерам.
It is raining.Идет дождь (сейчас).Осенью часто идет дождь.It often rains in autumn.
Не is writing a new play.Он пишет новую пьесу (в настоящий период времени).Не writes plays.Он пишет пьесы (т.е. занимается тем, что пишет пьесы).
I am reading a very interesting historical.Я читаю очень интересный исторический роман (в настоящий период времени).I often read historical novels, novel.Я часто читаю исторические романы.
Study this example situation:

Ann is in her car. She is on her way to work.She is driving to work.

This means: she is driving now, at the time of speaking. The action is not finished.

I am doing something = I'm in the middle of doing something; I've started doing it and I haven't finished yet. Often the action is happening at the time of speaking:

Please don't make so much noise. I'm working, (not 'I work')

'Where's Margaret?' 'She's having a bath.' (not 'she has a bath') Let's go out now. It isn't raining any more. (not 'it doesn't rain')

(at a party) Hello, Jane. Are you enjoying the party? (not 'do you enjoy')

I'm tired. I'm going to bed now. Goodnight!

But the action is not necessarily happening at the time of speaking. For example:

Tom and Ann are talking in a cafe. Tom says:

I'm reading an interesting book at the moment. I'll lend it to you when I've finished it.

Tom is not reading the book at the time of speaking. He means that he has started it but not finished it yet. He is in the middle of reading it.

Catherine wants to work in Italy, so she is learning Italian, (but perhaps she isn't learning Italian exactly at the time of speaking)

Some friends of mine are building their own house. They hope it will be finished before next summer.

We use the present continuous when we talk about things happening in a period around now (for example, today / this week / this evening etc.):

'You're working hard today.' 'Yes, I have a lot to do.' (not 'you work hard today')
'Is Susan working this week?' 'No, she's on holiday.'

We use the present continuous when we talk about changes happening around now:

The population of the world is rising very fast. (not 'rises')
Is your English getting better? (not 'does your English get better')

Some more examples:

Please don't make so much noise. I am studying.
Let's go out now. It isn't raining.
Please be quiet. I'm trying to concentrate.
Look! It is snowing.
Why are you looking at me like that? Have I said something wrong?
You are making a lot of noise. Can you be a bit quieter?
Excuse me. I am looking for a phone box. Is there one near hear?
(in the cinema) It's a good film, isn't it? Are you enjoying it?
Listen! Can you hear those people next door? They are shouting at each other again.
I am not working this week. I'm on holiday.
Why are you wearing your coat today? It's very warm.
I want to lose weight. I am not eating anything today.
The number of people without is increasing job at the moment.
He is still ill but he is getting better slowly.
These days food is becoming more and more expensive.
The world is changing. Things never stay the same.
The cost of living are rising. Every year things are dearer.
George has gone to work to Spain. When he arrived, his Spanish wasn't very good, but now it is improving.
The economic situation is already very bad and it is falling worse.

Brian and Steve meet in a restaurant:

Brian: Hello,Steve. I haven't seen you for ages. What are you doing these days?
Steve: I am training to be a shop manager.
Brian: Really? Are you enjoying it?
Steve: Yes, it's quite interesting. How about you?
Brian: Well, I am not working at the moment, but I'm very busy. I am building a house.
Steve: Really? Are you doing it alone?
Brian: No, some friends of mine (help) me.

Special case: to be going + infinitive

to be going + infinitive

Сводка случаев употребления Present Continuous

  1. Длительное действие, совершающееся в момент речи
    He is reading a newspaper in the library.Он читает газету в библиотеке (сейчас).
  2. Длительное действие, совершающееся в настоящий период времени
    He is writing a new play.Он пишет новую пьесу.
  3. Будущее длительное действие в придаточных предложениях условия и времени
    If I am sleeping when you come, wake me up.Если я буду спать, когда вы придете, разбудите меня.
  4. Будущее действие, когда высказывается намерение совершить действие или когда речь идет о заранее намеченном действии
    He is leaving Moscow tomorrow.Он завтра уезжает из Москвы.