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Настоящее совершенное длительное время

Настоящее совершенное длительное время в английском языке (Present Perfect Continuous Tense)

Образование Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в форме Present Perfect (have been, has been) и формы причастия настоящего времени (Present Participle) смыслового глагола:
I have been working, he has been working, we have been working.

В вопросительной форме первый вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.
Have I been working? Has he been working? Have we been working?

Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола.
I have not been working, he has not been working, we have not been working.

В вопросительно-отрицательной форме частица not ставится непосредственно после подлежащего.
Have I not been working? Has he not been working? Have we not been working?

В разговорной речи употребляются те же сокращения, что и в Present Perfect: I've been working, he's been working, I haven't been working, I've not been working, he hasn't been working, he's not been working; haven't I been working? hasn't he been working, и т.д.

Употребление Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Continuous употребляется для выражения длительного действия, которое началось в прошлом и еще совершается в настоящее время.

При употреблении этого времени всегда указан период времени, в течение которого совершается действие.

Таким образом, Present Perfect Continuous употребляется с такими обозначениями времени, как for an hour в течение часа, for a month в течение месяца, for a long time в течение долгого времени, долго, давно, lately последнее время, since yesterday со вчерашнего дня, since five o'clock с пяти часов и т.п., а также в вопросах, начинающихся с how long? как долго? и since when? с каких пор?

Present Perfect Continuous переводится на русский язык глаголом в настоящем времени, часто с наречием уже:
I have been waiting a long time for my brother.
Я жду своего брата уже давно.
I have been reading the newspaper since five o'clock.
Я читаю газету с пяти часов.
What have you been doing here since early morning? — I have been preparing for my examination.
Что вы здесь делаете с раннего утра? — Я готовлюсь к экзамену.
He has been living in Moscow for five years.
Он живет в Москве уже пять лет.
He has been teaching English since 1930.
Он преподает английский язык с 1930 года.
I have been reading a lot lately.
Я много читаю последнее время.
How long has he been living in Moscow?
Сколько времени он живет в Москве?
Since when have you been working at this factory?
С каких пор вы работаете на том заводе?

Если бы в приведенных примерах не было указано, как долго совершается действие, то вместо Present Perfect Continuous следовало бы употребить Present Continuous (когда речь идет о действии, совершающемся в момент речи) или Present Indefinite (когда речь идет о действии обычном, постоянном, свойственном подлежащему):

Действие, совершающееся в настоящее время с указанием, как долго оно совершается без указания, как долго оно совершается 1. I have been waiting for my brother for a long time. I am waiting for my brother. (действие в момент речи) 2. I have been reading the newspaper since five o'clock. I am reading the newspaper. (действие в момент речи) 3. It has been raining since morning. It is raining. (действие в момент речи) 4. Не has been living in Moscow for five He lives in Moscow. years. (постоянное действие) 5. He has been teaching English since 1930. He teaches English. (действие, свойственное подлежащему)

Когда речь идет о действии обычном, постоянном, свойственном подлежащему, т.е. происходящем вообще (а не в момент речи), то при указании продолжительности действия наряду с Present Perfect Continuous употребляется Present Perfect. Употребление Present Perfect Continuous подчеркивает длительность действия, в то время как Present Perfect подчеркивает факт совершения действия:

Не has been living in Moscow for five years. = He has lived in Moscow for five years. Он живет в Москве (уже) пять лет. Не has been teaching English since 1930. = He has taught English since 1930. Он преподает английский язык с 1930 года. Не has been working at that factory since he came to Moscow. = He has worked at that factory since he came to Moscow. Он работает на этом заводе с тех пор, как он приехал в Москву.

С глаголами, не употребляющимися во временах группы Continuous (to be, to have, to know, to love и др.), вместо Present Perfect Continuous употребляется Present Perfect. В этом случае Present Perfect переводится на русский язык, как и Present Perfect Continuous, настоящим временем:

She has been in Moscow for two years. Она находится в Москве уже два года. It has been very cold lately. Последнее время очень холодно. How long have you known him? Как долго вы его знаете? I have known him since my childhood. Я его знаю с детства.

Ошибкой является употребление Present Continuous и Present Indefinite вместо Present Perfect Continuous и Present Perfect, поскольку в разобранных случаях эти формы соответствуют в русском языке одной форме, а именно настоящему времени. Следует иметь в виду, что когда в предложении указано, как долго совершается действие, русское настоящее время соответствует Present Perfect Continuous или Present Perfect, а при отсутствии такого указания — Present Continuous или Present Indefinite:

Не has been waiting a long time for you. Он ждет вас уже давно.
He is waiting for you. Он ждет вас.
I have known him for two years. Я знаю его два года.
I know him. Я знаю его.

Present Perfect Continuous употребляется также для выражения длительного действия, которое началось в прошлом и закончилось непосредственно перед моментом речи. Период времени, в течение которого совершалось действие, может быть указан, так и не указан.

I feel tired as I have been working in the garden for several hours.
Я чувствую себя усталым, так как я работал в саду несколько часов.
Although the sun is shining, it is still cold as it has been raining hard.
Хотя светит солнце, все еще холодно, так как шел сильный дождь.

Сводка случаев употребления Present Perfect Continuous

Длительное действие, совершающееся в настоящем, с указанием как долго оно совершается (в русском языке соответствует настоящему времен) Длительное действие, которое началось в прошлом и закончилось непосредственно перед моментом речи (в русском языке соответствует прошедшему времени) I have been working since ten o'clock. Я работаю с десяти часов. Although the sun is shining, it is still cold as it has been raining hard. Хотя светит солнце, всё еще холодно, так как шел сильный дождь.

Примеры

Is it raining? No, but the ground is wet.

It has been raining.

We use the present perfect continuous for an activity that has recently stopped or just stopped. There is a connection with now.

You're out of breath.Have you been running? (you're out of breath now)

Paul is very tired. He's been working very hard. (he's tired now)

Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?

I've been talking to Carol about the problem and she thinks that...

It has been raining for two hours. Study this example situation:

It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining.

How long has it been raining? It has been raining for two hours.

We often use the present perfect continuous in this way, especially with how long, for... and since... . The activity is still happening (as in this example) or has just stopped.

How long have you been learning English? (you're still learning English)

Tim is still watching television. He's been watching television all day.

Where have you been? I've been looking for you for the last half hour.

George hasn't been feeling well recently.

You can use the present perfect continuous for actions repeated over a period of time:

Debbie is a very good tennis player. She's been playing since she was eight.

Every morning they meet in the same cafe. They've been going there for years.

Compare I am doing (see Unit 1) and I have been doing:

I have been doing\ sent perfect continuous /

Don't disturb me now. I'm working.
We need an umbrella. It's raining.
Hurry up! We're waiting.
I've been working hard, so now I'm going to have a rest.
The ground is wet. It's been raining.
We've been waiting for an hour.

The rain started two hours ago. It's still raining now. It has been raining for two hours.
We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. We're still waiting now. We have been waiting for 20 minutes.
I started Spanish classes in December. I'm still learning Spanish. I have been learning since December.
Ann began looking for a job six months ago. She is still looking now. She has been looking for six months.
Mary started working in London on 18 January. She is still working there now. She has been working in London since 18 January.
Years ago you started writing to a pen friend. You still write to each other regularly now. We have been writing for years.

Maria has been learning English for two years.
Hello, Tom. I have been looking for you all morning. Where have you been?
Why are you looking at me like that? Stop it.
We always go to Ireland for our holidays. We have been going there for years.
I have been thinking about what you said and I've decided to take your advice.
"Is Ann on holiday this week?" "No, she is working."
Sarah is very tired. She has been working very hard recently.

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