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Будущее неопределенное время в английском языке (The Future Indefinite Tense or The Future Simple Tense)

Образование Future Indefinite Tense

Future Indefinite образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов shall и will и формы инфинитива смыслового глагола (без to). Shall употребляется с 1-м лицом единственного и множественного числа, a will с остальными лицами:
I (we) shall work, he (you, they) will work.

В вопросительной форме вспомогательный глагол (shall или will) ставится перед подлежащим.

Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола (shall или will). Обычно вместо will not употребляется сокращение won't.

В вопросительно-отрицательной форме частица not ставится непосредственно после подлежащего.

В разговорной речи обычно употребляются следующие сокращения:

В утвердительной форме В отрицательной форме В вопросительно-отрицательной форме
I'll [aıl] I shan't [ʃɑ:nt]
I'll not
Shan't I
He'll [hi(:)l] He won't [wəʋnt]
He'll not
Won't he
She'll [ʃi(:)l] She won't
She'll not
Won't she
It won't
It'll not
Won't it
We'll [wi(:)l] We shan't
We'll not
Shan't we
You'll [ju:l] You won't
You'll not
Won't you
They'll [ðeıl] They won't
They'll not
Won't they

Future Indefinite Tense употребляется:

Future Indefinite употребляется для выражения действия, которое совершится или будет совершаться в будущем. Это время может обозначать как однократное, так и повторяющееся действие.

Не will return to Moscow in a few days. Он вернется в Москву через несколько дней.
We shall not see him till Monday. Мы не увидим его до понедельника.
They will take English lessons twice а week. Они будут брать уроки английского языка два раза в неделю.

Future Indefinite не употребляется в придаточных предложениях времени и условия. В этих случаях вместо Future Indefinite употребляется Present Indefinite:

Не will send us a telegram as soon as the steamer arrives. Он пошлет нам телеграмму, как только прибудет пароход.
If I receive a letter from him, I'll let you know. Если я получу письмо от него, я дам вам знать.

Future Indefinite иногда выражает не будущее действие, а предполагаемое действие, относящееся к настоящему. В этом случае Future Indefinite приближается по значению к сочетанию must с Indefinite Infinitive и переводится на русский язык настоящим временем в сочетании со словами должно быть, вероятно. В таком употреблении Future Indefinite встречается в деловых письмах, газетных и журнальных статьях:

You will recall that these facts were already mentioned in the last issue. Вы, должно быть, помните, что эти факты упоминались в последнем номере журнала.
You will expect that this question has already been settled. Вы, вероятно, ожидаете, что этот вопрос уже разрешен.

Наряду с Future Indefinite будущее действие выражается также посредством:

  1. Present Continuous глагола to go в сочетании с инфинитивом другого глагола:
    I am going to send him a telegram. Я пошлю (собираюсь послать) ему телеграмму.
    Не is going to spend his summer vacation in the Crimea. Он собирается провести свои летние каникулы в Крыму.
  2. Present Continuous:
    They are leaving for Leningrad tonight. Они уезжают в Ленинград сегодня вечером.
    Не is taking his examination on Friday.
  3. Present Indefinite:
    The steamer sails tomorrow. Пароход уходит завтра.
  4. Future Continuous:
    Не will be meeting us at the station. Он нас будет встречать (встретит) на вокзале.
    I shall be writing to him tomorrow. Я буду писать (напишу) ему завтра.

    Такое выражение будущего действия часто употребляется в разговорной речи вместо Future Indefinite (особенно часто сочетание Present Continuous глагола to go с инфинитивом).

Сводка случаев употребления Future Indefinite

  1. Действие, которое совершится или будет совершаться в будущем
    I shall return to Moscow in a few days. Я вернусь в Москву через несколько дней.
    He will take English lessons twice a week. Он будет брать уроки английского языка два раза в неделю.

Примеры употребления Future Indefinite Tense:

We use I'll (= I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking:
  • Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it.
  • 'What would you like to drink?' 'I'll have an orange juice, please.'
  • 'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot. I'll phone her now.'
  • I'm too tired to walk home. I think I'll get a taxi.

You cannot use the present simple (I do / I go etc.) in these sentences:

  • I'll go and shut the door. (not 'I go and shut')

We often use I think I'll... and I don't think I'll...:

  • I feel a bit hungry. I think I'll have something to eat.
  • I don't think I'll go out tonight. I'm too tired.

In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (= will not):

  • I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long.

Do not use will to talk about what you have already decided or arranged to do:

  • I'm going on holiday next Saturday, (not 'I'll go')
  • Are you working tomorrow? (not 'will you work')

We often use will in these situations:

Offering to do something

  • That bag looks heavy. I'll help you with it. (not 'I help')
  • "I need some money." "Don't worry. I'll lend you some."

Agreeing to do something

  • A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you've finished with it? B: Of course. I'll give it to you this afternoon, (not 'I give')

Promising to do something

  • Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday, (not 'I pay')
  • I won't tell anyone what happened. I promise.

Asking somebody to do something (Will you...?)

  • Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate.
  • Will you shut the door, please?

You can use won't to say that somebody refuses to do something:

  • I've tried to advise her but she won't listen. (= she refuses to listen)
  • The car won't start. I wonder what's wrong with it. (= the car 'refuses' to start)

Shall I...? Shall we...?

Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I...? / shall we...? We use shall I...? / shall we...? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions):

  • Shall I open the window? (= do you want me to open the window?)
  • I've got no money. What shall I do? (= what do you suggest?)
  • 'Shall we go?' 'Just a minute. I'm not ready yet.'
  • Where shall we go this evening?

Compare shall I...? and will you...?:

  • Shall I shut the door? (= do you want me to shut it?)
  • Will you shut the door? (= I want you to shut it)

I feel a bit hungry. I think I'll have something to eat.
It's too late to telephone Tom now. I'll phone him in the morning.
"It's a bit cold in this room." "Is it? I'll turn on the heating then."
"We haven't got any cigarettes." "Oh, haven't we? I'll go and get some."
"Did you write that letter to Jack?" "Oh, I forgot.Thanks for reminding me. it this evening.
"Would you like tea or coffee?" "I'll have coffee, please."

Tom isn't free on Saturday. He is working.
I'm going to a party tomorrow night. Would you like to come too?
According to the weather forecast it will rain tomorrow.
I'm sure Tom will find the job. He has a lot of experience.
I can't meet you this evening. A friend of mine is coming to see me.
"Have you decided where to go for your holidays yet?" "Yes, I'm going to Italy.
Don't worry about the dog. It won't hurt you.
"When do you think he'll arrive?" "I expect he'll arrive tonight."
"How do you think she'll go there?" "I think she'll go by train."